Posts for tag: causes of gout
A study published last September by The American Journal of Medicine says that gaining too much weight in early and mid-life can drastically increase your chances of getting gout.
Janet W. Maynard, MD, MHS at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, MD and colleagues found cumulative incidence of gout by age 70 years for women at 3.6 percent among those who were overweight at the baseline and 7.9 percent among those with obesity at the baseline. Women who have a healthy weight at baseline had a gout incidence of 1.9 percent, and those who were considered morbidly obese had an incidence of 11.8 percent.
The study included 6263 women aged 45 to 65 years and without a history of gout, accepted between 1987 and 1989 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. During the nine year study, 106 women developed gout. Those considered obese were twice as likely to get gout than those considered non-obese.
Early adult obesity, before 25 years of age, among women correlated to a 2.8 times increased risk of gout, compared to those who were not obese at 25.
The researchers concluded that, "In a large cohort of black and white women, obesity in early- and mid-adulthood, and weight gain during this interval, were each independent risk factors for incident gout in women."
A different study, led Ronenn Roubenoff, MD, MHS and colleagues, was published in The Journal of American Medical Association and used men as subjects. Their study associated obesity, excessive weight gain in young adulthood, and hypertension with increased risk of gout.
In their report, the researchers state, "prevention of obesity and hypertension may decrease the incidence and morbidity from gout; studies of weight reduction in the primary and secondary prevention of gout are indicated."
A possible reason for the increase in gout is the consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks, which have already been associated with the obesity epidemic in the United States. Soft drinks often contain fructose, which leads to the formation of gout-promoting uric acid.
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Got lead in your house? Here's another reason to remove lead from your home: adults with "safe" blood levels of lead have an increased incidence of gout and hyperuricema than adults with low blood levels of lead.
The new population study, after adjustments for population characteristics, people with the highest blood levels of lead had a threefold risk of gout compared to those with the lowest levels. "This study documents that low-level exposure to lead... as it occurs in the general population is associated with a significantly elevated presence of gout. These data suggest that there is no such thing as a 'safe' level of exposure to lead. Further refinement in national goals for prevention, detection, and removal of lead from the environment should be pursued," wrote study authors.
However, current standards for acceptable lead exposure do not reflect the actual threshold for harm. Authors cited recent studies showing the blood lead levels under a certain amount are associated with progression of chronic kidney disease and with cardiovascular mortality. The association between lead and gout and hyperuricema is a controversial issue for lower levels of lead exposure. Population based studies have had conflicting results.
Co-author Eswar Krishnan, MD, of Stanford University, and colleagues studied whether current accepted standards for lead exposure have an association with gout. Mercury and cadmium were also included in the study. Data for the study was taken from the 2005 to 2006 and the 2007 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Researchers limited the study to adults 40 to 85 with information on serum creatinine, blood levels of heavy metals, and serum urate concentrations. Participants who had a history of renal problems or dialysis were excluded. The final number of participants was 6,153 with an even distribution between men and women.
Of the 6,153 participants, 290 had gout, 229 of the cases were men. The subgroup with gout was older and had kidney ailments.
Author of an accompanying editorial, Ashwini R. Seghal, MD, of Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland said, "Lower thresholds for toxic lead levels are desirable and feasible. Lead and its myriad uses will remain an integral part of our external environment. However, both children and adults deserve an internal environment that is as unleaded as was our evolutionary past."
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